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The Day the Earth Stood Still 1977 Magnetic Video Betamax FIRST


Item specifics

Very Good: An item that is used but still in very good condition. No damage to the jewel case or ...
Release Year:
Hugh Marlowe
Atomic Age
Robert Wise
Cult, Black amp; White
Sci-Fi amp; Fantasy
Movie/TV Title:
The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951 film)
Leading Role:
Michael Rennie

The Day the Earth Stood Still 1977 Magnetic Video Betamax FIRST

Tuesday, January 11, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Pristimantis gretathunbergae • A New Rainfrog of the Genus Pristimantis (Anura, Brachycephaloidea) from central and eastern Panama

Pristimantis gretathunbergae 
Mebert, González-Pinzón, Miranda, Griffith, Vesely, Schmid & Batista, 2022


Substantial molecular and morphological character differences lead us to the description of a new species of the genus Pristimantis from the cloud forest of Cerro Chucantí, Maje Mountains, Darien Province, as well as from several other mountain ranges in eastern and central Panama. Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov. is a sister species to the allopatric P. erythropleura-penelopus group from northern Colombia with a mtDNA sequence divergence of > 4.4% at 16S and > 14.6% at COI. Its closest congener in sympatry is P. cruentus that differs by a large sequence divergence of > 9.6% in 16S mtDNA and 19.0% at COI, and from which it differs also by ventral and groin coloration, unusually prominent black eyes, a contrasting light upper lip, commonly a single conical to spine-like tubercle on the upper eyelid, and a larger head. While the habitat continuity at most sites in eastern Panama is moderate, habitats in central Panama are severely fragmented. Cerro Chucantí and the surrounding Maje Mountains are highly threatened by rapid deforestation and replaced by plantations and cattle pastures. Thus, investigations on the ecology of the new species and its population status, especially at the type locality, are highly recommended. As a flagship species, this new frog can help to preserve the Chucantí cloud forest including several recently described species known only from this isolated area in eastern Panama.

Keywords: Chucantí, Craugastoridae, Greta Thunberg’s Rainfrog, Maje, Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov., Strabomantidae, Terraranae

Coloration in life of specimens of Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov. and P. cruentus from eastern Panama
A holotype male (MHCH 3082), Cerro Chucantí B paratype female (SMF97520), Cerro Chucantí C left, paratype female (MHCH 3081), right P. cruentus female (MHCH3034)
D female from Cerro Chucantí, not collected E female (MHCH3115) La Javillosa
F female, Cerro La Javillosa, Ambroya, Maje Mountain Range (SMF97517) G female (MHCH3079), Rio Tuquesa.
Colored lines point to some diagnostic characters as follow: red: blackish iris; yellow: single spine-like tubercle; turquoise: light-colored upper lip; pink: cream, yellow to red groin (red groin also shown in Suppl. material 2: Fig. S10).

Habitat, mating, and parental care in females of Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov. from Cerro Chucantí
A Habitat on Cerro Chucantí at ca. 1300 m a.s.l. B understory bromeliad with a P. gretathunbergae sp. nov. in situ (blue line) and zoomed in on inset (MHCH 3115)
C amplectant pair on axillary part of bromeliad leaf (not collected) D same female after amplexus guarding eggs
E female of P. gretathunbergae taking care of its eggs with a male P. cruentus species holding on the female in reverse position (not collected) F female with eggs about to hatch, note the transparency of the egg membrane (not collected).


Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov. 

Suggested English name: Greta Thunberg’s Rainfrog 
Suggested Spanish name: Rana de Greta Thunberg

Diagnosis: Pristimantis gretathunbergae sp. nov., a member of the Pristimantis ridens species group (sensu Reyes-Puig et al. 2020), is characterized by the following combination of characters: (1) dorsal skin surfaces slightly areolate, with dispersed tubercles; venter weakly areolate; discoidal fold present, dorsolateral folds absent; (2) tympanum concealed, indistinguishable or poorly distinguished; annulus and tympanic membrane barely visible in males, not visible in females; tympanic fold from the posterior edge of the eye to the arm insertion; (3) snout short, broadly rounded in dorsal view, moderate in length, rounded and slightly protruding in profile; (4) upper eyelid with a single conical to spine-like, some triangular tubercle, ED wider than IoD; cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous processes of vomers present, prominent, oblique, each bearing from 5 to 10 teeth; (6) vocal slits and nuptial pads absent; (7) Finger I shorter than Finger II; discs on outer fingers truncate, more than twice width of digit proximal to disc; (8) fingers bearing narrow lateral fringes; (9) three to four low ulnar tubercles, barely visible in preservative; (10) heel bearing a conical tubercles, outer edge of tarsus with three to four low and small conical tubercles, inner edge of tarsus lacking tubercles; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle large and elliptical, 4–5× size of outer, ovoid metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles low; subarticular tubercles conical; (12) toes bearing narrow lateral fringes; webbing absent; Toe V much longer than Toe III; discs as large as those on outer fingers; (13) dorsal ground coloration usually shades of brown with individual tones of red or yellow with or without scattered orange flecks, and/or larger reddish or distinct brown blotches, or light dorsolateral band; (14) venter uniform dirty white (some specimens exhibit dark spotting) or patternless yellow to orange; (15) groin and inner thighs white, yellow or orange-red, some with flecks matching the dorsal ground color or red; (16) blackish iris, some individuals show very dark red iris and/or red-golden speckling; (17) prominent light upper lip in all females and in some males, while other males exhibit some blotches extending from the nose vertically across the lip, however, the upper border of the light-colored lip patches is still demarcated by the darker nose coloration, except in generally light-colored specimens; (18) SVL up to 36.7 mm in males, up to 46.3 mm in females.


Etymology: The specific name is a noun in the genitive case and is a patronym in honor for Greta Thunberg, a Swedish student, and her global climate activism. Greta initiated a “School Strike for Climate Action” outside the Swedish parliament to demand a radical response to the threat by the ongoing climate change. Then sixteen-year-old Thunberg’s example has inspired students worldwide to carry out similar strikes called Fridays For Future that started in August 2018. In December 2018 she addressed world leaders at the COP24 climate talks in Katowice, Poland, with sharp and unmasked words, and equally impressed a global audience in January 2020 with her unpolitical, direct speech down to the point on “Averting a Climate Apocalypse” at the WEF (World Economic Forum) in Davos, Switzerland. Just recently, she publicly slammed the world leaders at the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow, November 2021, for not doing enough to meet the demands of the climate emergency. Greta Thunberg represents the authentic voice that exposes the motivations behind the diplomatic curtain of politicians and business stakeholders. Her voice is essential if we want to revert to and maintain a healthy environment on the planet we all share, and not least, learn to respect its magnificent mega-diversity of life that took millions of years to evolve.



Konrad Mebert, Macario González-Pinzón, Madian Miranda, Edgardo Griffith, Milan Vesely, P. Lennart Schmid and Abel Batista. 2022. A New Rainfrog of the Genus Pristimantis (Anura, Brachycephaloidea) from central and eastern Panama. ZooKeys. 1081: 1-34. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1081.63009

[Crustacea • 2022] Pseudomma kryotroglodytum • First Report of the Order Mysida in Antarctic Marine Ice Caves, with Description of A New Species of Pseudomma and Investigations on the Taxonomy, Morphology and Life Habits of Mysidetes Species

Pseudomma kryotroglodytum
Wittmann & Chevaldonné, 2022

SCUBA diving explorations of three islands off Dumont d’Urville Station at the coast of Adélie Land, East Antarctica, enabled the observation of marine ice caves. Sampling in this unusual habitat yielded a total of three species of Mysidae, altogether previously poorly known or unknown to science. Pseudomma kryotroglodytum sp. nov. is described, based on the structure of the antennal scale, telson and on cornea-like lateral portions set off against the main body of eyeplates. Mysidetes illigi is re-established at species level after almost a century in synonymy. Re-descriptions are provided for M. illigi and M. hanseni, based on types and ice cave materials. Keys to the Southern Ocean species of Pseudomma and to the world-wide species of Mysidetes are given.

Phylogenetic trees are provided for the genera Pseudomma and Mysidetes. 18S rDNA sequences of P. kryotroglodytum differ from GenBank sequences of other Pseudomma species. First sequence data are given for species of the genus Mysidetes: 18S differs between the two examined species and COI is quite diverse between and within species.

We found previously unknown, probably sensorial structures in these ice cave species: in P. kryotroglodytum, the basal segment of the antennula shows a pit-like depression with striated pad on the bottom and a median cyst, connected with the bottom of the eyeplate cleft. M. illigi shows a female homologue of the appendix masculina bearing a field of modified setae. Subsequent investigations demonstrated these structures also in species from other habitats.

The feeding apparatus and stomach contents of the three ice cave species point to brushing of small particles (detritus, microalgae) from available surfaces, such as sediment, rock and the ice surface. Differences in the feeding apparatus are very subtle between the two Mysidetes species. The high content of fat bodies in M. hanseni could help it to survive periods of starvation. The large storage volume of the foregut in P. kryotroglodytum points to the collection of food with low nutritional quality and could help to balance strongly fluctuating food availability.

Summer specimens of M. hanseni showed a bimodal frequency of developmental stages in the marsupium and bimodal size-frequency distribution of free-living stages. The females with younger brood (embryos) were, on average, larger and carried more marsupial young than those with older brood (nauplioid larvae). All examined incubating and spent females showed (almost) empty foreguts and empty ovarian tubes, suggesting possible semelparity and death following the release of young. The absence of juveniles and immature females from summer samples suggests that growth and accumulation of fat and yolk occur outside ice caves, while such caves could be used by fattened adults as shelter for brooding. A provisional interpretation proposes a biannual life cycle for M. hanseni, superimposed with shifted breeding schedules, the latter characterised by early breeding and late breeding females, probably in response to harsh physical and trophic conditions along the continental coast of Antarctica.

Keywords: Development, feeding, key to species, life cycle, marine caves, molecular systematics, polar biology, sensory organs

Order Mysida Boas, 1883
Family Mysidae Haworth, 1825

Subfamily Erythropinae Hansen, 1910

Tribe Pseudommini Wittmann, Ariani & Lagardère, 2014

Genus Pseudomma G.O. Sars, 1870

Pseudomma kryotroglodytum sp. nov. from ice cave of Bernard Island, Antarctica
A female holotype, lateral B cephalothorax of female holotype, dorsal C physical aspect of the ice cave environmentA, B living specimen in laboratory.

Pseudomma kryotroglodytum sp. nov. 
Diagnosis: Covers females only. Species of the genus Pseudomma G.O. Sars, 1870, with cornea-like lateral portions separated by sulci from main part of eyeplate (Figs 2B, 4C, 23A), no visual elements. Disto-median fissure penetrates one third of eyeplate. Distal margin of eyeplates with series of minute teeth along sublateral sector (‘shoulders’, Fig. 23A, D). Basal segment of antennular trunk without medio-ventral carina. Antennal scale (Fig. 4B) with setose apical lobe contributing about 1/4 scale length. Mandibular palp (Fig. 4E) 3-segmented, very large, about as long as antennal scale. Three pairs of oostegites (Fig. 5I) contributing to wall of brood pouch. Pleopods (Fig. 6H–L) reduced to setose rods with residual differentiation of endopod (pseudobranchial lobes). Telson (Figs 3A, 6N) trapezoid, as long as ultimate pleonite. Its length twice maximum width at basis and four times width at apex. Lateral margins of telson without setae and spines, only minute scales present. Transversely truncate terminal margin with only two pairs of spines, both hispid due to minute scales (Fig. 3B) along more than proximal 2/3 spine length. Large latero-apical and same-sized submedio-apical spines flank median pair of closely set setae (Fig. 3C) with twice spine length. Margin with short, well-rounded indentation between each spine, median indentation largest. Disto-lateral edge without tooth, with spine only.

Etymology: The species name is an adjective with Latinised neutral ending formed by adjectivation of the amalgamated Ancient Greek adjective κρύος (cold) with the noun τρωγλοδύτης (cave dweller). The adjectivation has precedence in the name of the butterfly Macroglossum troglodytus Boisduval, l875, listed by Kemal et al. (2019) as M. troglodytum.

 Karl J. Wittmann and Pierre Chevaldonné. 2022. First Report of the Order Mysida (Crustacea) in Antarctic Marine Ice Caves, with Description of A New Species of Pseudomma and Investigations on the Taxonomy, Morphology and Life Habits of Mysidetes Species. ZooKeys. 1079: 145-227.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1079.76412

[PaleoIchthyology • 2021] Rare Evidence of Shark-on-shark Trophic Interactions in the Fossil Record

One possible way in which the shark centra (CMM-V-2700) could have been bitten. This illustration depicts an active predatory encounter between two requiem sharks (aff. Carcharhinus sp.).

in Perez, Godfrey & Chapman, 2021. 

Original drawing by Tim Scheirer (formerly CMM). 
Coloration added by Clarence Schumaker (CMM).

Direct evidence of chondrichthyan trophic interactions in the fossil record is largely limited to bite traces on prey items but may also be found within the gut contents of exceptionally well-preserved individuals or as inclusions within coprolites. Shark bite traces are typically observed on durable, bony skeletal elements. Previous publications have shown shark bite traces on skeletal elements of fossil fishes, marine mammals, marine reptiles, and even a pterosaur, offering direct evidence of active predation, failed predation, and/or scavenging. Herein, we describe the first evidence of shark bite traces preserved on cartilaginous vertebral centra of other sharks. Four carcharhiniform centra have been identified from the Neogene Atlantic Coastal Plain, bearing chondrichthyan bite traces, of which two have partial teeth still embedded within them. In one specimen, CMM-V-2700, CT scans showed remodeling of the tissue around two partial teeth embedded in the centrum, indicating that the bitten individual survived the encounter. While shark-on-shark predation is common among living taxa, capturing evidence of these interactions in the fossil record is exceptionally rare.

Key words: Chondrichthyes, Carcharhinidae, trophic interaction, shark predation, shark-on-shark, bite traces, trace fossils, Neogene.

Centrum of Carcharhinidae indet. (CMM-V-2700) from the Miocene Calvert Formation in Chesapeake Beach, MD, USA.
 Centrum in articular cross-sectional (A), lateral (B), and articular (C) views; CT-scan in articular view (D); CT-scan in lateral view (E). Arrows indicate the two shark teeth embedded in and protruding from the upper quadrant of the centrum.
Scale bars 10 mm.

One possible way in which the shark centra (CMM-V-2700) could have been bitten. This illustration depicts an active predatory encounter between two requiem sharks (aff. Carcharhinus sp.).
Original drawing by Tim Scheirer (formerly CMM). 
Coloration added by Clarence Schumaker (CMM).

Victor J. Perez, Stephen J. Godfrey, and Phillip F. Chapman. 2021. Rare Evidence of Shark-on-shark Trophic Interactions in the Fossil Record. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 66(4); 847-856. DOI: 10.4202/app.00911.2021

[Mollusca • 2021] Angustopila coprologos & A. psammion • The World’s Tiniest Land Snails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Hypselostomatidae) from Laos and Vietnam

Angustopila coprologos Páll-Gergely, Jochum & Hunyadi; 
 Angustopila psammion Páll-Gergely, Vermeulen & Anker;

Angustopila pallgergelyiAcmella nanaNotharinia micro 

in Páll-Gergely, Jochum, Vermeulen, Anker, Hunyadi, et al., 2022.

Two new, extremely small land snail species, Angustopila coprologos Páll-Gergely, Jochum & Hunyadi n. sp. and Angustopila psammion Páll-Gergely, Vermeulen & Anker n. sp. are described from northern Vietnam and northern Laos, respectively. The former is characterized by a rough surface sculpture and bears tiny mud granules arranged in a pattern of radial lines on its shell surface. The latter species is the new global record-holder of the tiniest land snail title, with a shell width of 0.6–0.68 mm and a shell height of 0.46–0.57 mm. These measurements surpass the former records of Angustopila pallgergelyi and Acmella nana.

Keywords: Acmella; Angustopila; Arinia; miniaturization; shell; ornamentation

Systematic descriptions
Family Hypselostomatidae Zilch, 1959

Genus Angustopila Jochum, Slapnik & Páll-Gergely, 2014

Angustopila Jochum, Slapnik & Páll-Gergely, 2014; Jochum et al., 2014: 410: 26.

Type species: Systenostoma tamlod Panha & Burch, 1999, by original designation.

Angustopila coprologos Páll-Gergely, Jochum & Hunyadi n. sp.
Diagnosis: A strongly depressed-globular Angustopila species with a wide umbilicus, strong spiral sculpture consisting of a series of coarse elevations (flat-topped beads) in a chain-like pattern and four well-developed teeth (1 parietal, 2 palatal, 1 basal).

Differential diagnosis: Angustopila coprologos n. sp. can be easily distinguished from all other Angustopila species by its depressed shell, the four apertural denticles and the pronounced sculpture.

Etymology: The specific epithet coprologos (Ancient Greek for dung gatherer) refers to the mud granules (here assumed to be faeces) placed on this species’ shell. Used as a noun in apposition.

Distribution: This species is known only from the type locality in Bolikhamsay Province, Laos: ca. 13 km southeast (in a straight line) from the town Lak Sao (see also supplementary figs S1–S2).

Angustopila psammion Páll-Gergely, Anker & Vermeulen, n. sp.
Diagnosis: An Angustopila species with a depressed-globular shell with dome-shaped spire, thick spiral striae, kidney-shaped aperture with single parietal denticle not reaching parietal callus.

Differential diagnosis: Angustopila pallgergelyi Dumrongrojwattana, Chuenit & Wongkamhaeng, 2021 is similar in shell and aperture shape, but is larger, has a prominent palatal tooth (absent in Angustopila psammion n. sp.) and a stronger parietal tooth. Angustopila coprologos n. sp. is slightly larger, has a rough shell surface, and has an additional subcolumellar tooth and two palatal teeth.

Etymology: The specific epithet (ψαμμίον) means a grain of sand in Greek and is used as a noun in apposition.

Distribution: This new species is known only from the type locality, Cap La Cave, Ha Long Bay, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

Size comparisons of the former record holders,
Angustopila pallgergelyi, Acmella nana, Notharinia micro, the smallest marine snail, Ammonicera minortalis, and the two new species [
Angustopila coprologos n. sp. and Angustopila psammion n. sp.] described herein.
 The image of Ammonicera minortalis Rolán, 1992 is from Oliver et al. (2012), whereas the other images (Acmella nana and Arinia micro) are from their respective original descriptions. The figure of Acmella nana is adjusted to scale with the measurement of the smallest specimen, whereas for Angustopila coprologos n. sp. and Angustopila psammion n. sp., the holotypes (not the tiniest shells) are shown.

Two species, Angustopila psammion Páll-Gergely, Vermeulen & Anker n. sp. and Angustopila coprologos Páll-Gergely, Jochum & Hunyadi n. sp. are described from northern Laos and northern Vietnam, respectively. With its shell width of 0.60–0.68 mm and shell height of 0.46–0.57 mm, Angustopila psammion n. sp. is the new global record-holder of the title of the tiniest land snail, surpassing the former two record-holders, Angustopila pallgergelyi and Acmella nana. The calculated volume for the smallest adult snail (including the shell) is 0.036 mm3. In the absence of extreme food specialization, miniaturization of land snails is probably driven by the accessibility of small spaces in the subsoil, although other scenarios, such as avoidance of larger predators, cannot be ruled out. The lower limit of adult shell size may be determined by the fact that it must accommodate at least one viable egg, the size of which in turn, may be limited by the minimum number of neurons to be functional in the hatchling. On the other hand, Angustopila coprologos n. sp. is characterized by a rough surface sculpture (most complex among all known and undescribed species of its genus), and minuscule mud granules arranged in radial lines on its shell surface. These granules may play a role in camouflage and mate recognition or function like mini sponges for water retention.

 Barna Páll-Gergely, Adrienne Jochum, Jaap J. Vermeulen, Katja Anker, András Hunyadi, Aydin Örstan, Ábel Szabó, László Dányi and Menno Schilthuizen. 2022. The World’s Tiniest Land Snails from Laos and Vietnam (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Hypselostomatidae). Contributions to Zoology. DOI: 10.1163/18759866-bja10025 

Monday, January 10, 2022

[Mammalogy • 2022] Myotis moratellii • Variation in the Myotis keaysi Complex (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), with Description of A New Species from Ecuador

Skull profiles of (A-C) Myotis keaysi (CML 10985) from Argentina;
 and  (D-F) Myotis moratellii sp. nov. (USNM 525868) from western lowlands of Ecuador. 

Novaes, Cláudio, Carrión-Bonilla, Abreu, Wilson, Maldonado & Weksler, 2021

The genus Myotis comprises a diverse group of vespertilionid bats with worldwide distribution. Twenty-eight Neotropical species are currently recognized. In this study, we evaluate molecular and morphological variation in the M. keaysi complex, a high elevation clade of Neotropical myotine bats characterized by complex taxonomy and high morphological variation. A phylogeny inferred with cytochrome-b sequences recovered two clades composed of samples traditionally assigned to M. keaysi, with 9% of genetic divergence between them. These clades were also suggested as putative distinct species by molecular species delimitation methods. Qualitative and quantitative morphological analyses indicated a phenotypic discontinuity between specimens from central Andes (including the holotype of M. keaysi) and western lowlands of Ecuador, showing strong congruence between molecular and morphological approaches. We therefore describe a new species for the Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena region, documenting their external and cranial diagnostic characters by comparing them with other Neotropical species. In addition, we provide an emended diagnosis for our new concept of M. keaysi.

Andes, historical DNA, multivariate morphometry, molecular species delimitation, Myotinae, Neotropics, taxonomy, Western Ecuador lowlands

Skull profiles of Myotis keaysi (CML 10985) from Argentina in lateral (A), ventral (B) and dorsal (C) views;  
and Myotis sp. nov. (USNM 525868) from western lowlands of Ecuador in lateral (D), ventral (E) and dorsal (F) views. The image of the Myotis sp. nov. mandible was inverted.

Family Vespertilionidae Gray (1821)
Subfamily Myotinae Tate (1942)

Genus Myotis Kaup (1829)
Subgenus Pizonyx Miller (1906)

Myotis moratellii, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Medium-sized species (FA 35.0–38.2 mm; GLS 13.8–14.0 mm); sagittal crest present and ranging from medium to high; robust and broad skull; braincase inflated and remarkably high in profile; braincase roof formed by the parietal bone subtly inclined forward; frontal bone with a sharp slope in lateral view; posterior region of the braincase rounded and projected beyond the limit of the occipital condyles; well-developed mastoid processes; dorsal fur moderately long (5–7 mm), woolly and unicolored, ranging from Buckthorn Brown to Aniline Yellow; legs and dorsal face of the uropatagium covered by fur that extend up to or just above the knees; plagiopatagium attached to the foot by a broad band of membrane.

Etymology: Myotis moratellii is named in honor of Dr. Ricardo Moratelli, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of systematics and natural history of Chiroptera, especially the taxonomy of Neotropical Myotis, such as the description of eight new species: M. izecksohni Moratelli et al., 2011; M. lavali Moratelli et al., 2011; M. diminutus Moratelli & Wilson 2011; Myotis handleyi Moratelli et al., 2013; M. midastactus Moratelli & Wilson, 2014; M. clydejonesi Moratelli et al., 2016; M. attenboroughi Moratelli et al., 2017; and M. bakeri Moratelli et al., 2019. More than a notable researcher, Dr. Moratelli is also an attentive and brilliant mentor, dedicated to the training of new scientists. This species name is a noun in the genitive case formed by adding -i to the stem of the name (ICZN, 1999; 31.1.2).

Common name: Moratelli’s Myotis (English); Myotis de Moratelli (Spanish).

Roberto Leonan M. Novaes, Vinícius C. Cláudio, Carlos Carrión-Bonilla, Edson F Abreu, Don E Wilson, Jesús E Maldonado and Marcelo Weksler. 2021. Variation in the Myotis keaysi Complex (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), with Description of A New Species from Ecuador. Journal of Mammalogy. gyab139. DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyab139

El género Myotis comprende un grupo diverso de murciélagos vespertiliónidos de distribución mundial. Actualmente se reconocen veintiocho especies neotropicales. En este estudio evaluamos la variación molecular y morfológica del complejo M. keaysi, un clado de alta elevación topográfica?de murciélagos neotropicales caracterizados por una taxonomía compleja y una alta variación morfológica. La filogenia inferida a partir de secuencias de citocromo-b recuperó dos clados en base a muestras tradicionalmente asignadas a M. keaysi, con un 9% de divergencia genética entre sí. Ambos clados también se sugieren como especies putativas distintas mediante métodos de delimitación de especies moleculares. Los análisis morfológicos cualitativos y cuantitativos indicaron una discontinuidad fenotípica entre especímenes de los Andes centrales (incluido el holotipo de M. keaysi) y las tierras bajas occidentales de Ecuador, mostrando una marcada congruencia entre perspectivas moleculares y morfológicas. Por lo tanto, describimos una nueva especie para la región Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena, documentando caracteres diagnósticos externos y craneales por medio de comparaciones con otras especies neotropicales. Además, proporcionamos un diagnóstico modificado para el nuevo concepto de M. keaysi que proponemos

ADN histórico, Andes, delimitación molecular de especies, morfometría multivariada, Myotinae, neotrópicos, planicie ecuatoriana, taxonomía

Sunday, January 9, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Uvariopsis dicaprio (Annonaceae) • A New Tree Species with Notes on Its Pollination Biology, and the Critically Endangered narrowly endemic Plant Species of the Ebo Forest, Cameroon

Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline,
in Gosline, Cheek​​, Onana, ... et Dagallier, 2022.

The Ebo Forest area is a highly threatened centre of diversity in the Littoral Region of Cameroon, globally important for conservation with many threatened species including 68 threatened species of plant, yet not formally protected. The tropical African evergreen forest tree genus Uvariopsis Engl. & Diels (Annonaceae) is characterised by unisexual, usually cauliflorous flowers with a uniseriate corolla of four petals, and two sepals. Cameroon is the centre of diversity of the genus with 14 of the 19 known species.

The herbarium collection MacKinnon 51 from Ebo is hypothesized to represent a new species to science of Uvariopsis. This hypothesis is tested by the study of herbarium specimens from a number of herbaria known to hold important collections from Cameroon and surrounding countries.

We test the hypothesis that MacKinnon 51 represents a new species to science, using the most recent dichotomous identification key, and comparing it morphologically with reference material of all known species of the genus. We make a detailed comparative morphological study focussing on three other Cameroonian species, Uvariopsis solheidii, U. korupensis and the sympatric U. submontana. In the context of a review of the pollination biology of Uvariopsis, we speculate that in a genus otherwise with species with dull, flesh-coloured (pink, red to brown) flowers pollinated (where known) by diptera, orthoptera and blattodea (flies, crickets and cockroaches), the glossy, pale yellow-green flowers of Uvariopsis dicaprio, with additional traits unique in the genus, may be pollinated by nocturnal moths. Based on MacKinnon 51, we formally name Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline (Annonaceae) as new to science, and we describe, and illustrate, and map it. Restricted so far to a single site in evergreen forest in the Ebo Forest, Littoral Region, Cameroon, Uvariopsis dicaprio is provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered using the IUCN, 2012 standard because the forest habitat of this species remains unprotected, and there exist imminent threats of logging and conversion to plantations.

We show that the highest density of species of the genus (12), and of narrow endemics (5), is found in the Cross-Sanaga Interval of SE Nigeria and Western Cameroon. A revised key to the 14 Cameroonian species of Uvariopsis is presented. We review the other seven narrowly endemic and threatened species unique to the Ebo forest of Cameroon and discuss the phytogeographic affinities of the area.

Uvariopsis dicaprio adds to the growing list of species threatened with extinction at Ebo Forest due to current anthropogenic pressures.

Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline. 
(A) habit, cauliflorous inflorescences on trunk; (B) leafy branch, one season’s growth; (C) inflorescence, showing pedicel articulations, bracts and bracteoles; (D) flower, with one petal removed to show the staminal dome; (E) detail of sparse hairs on abaxial petal surface; (F) stamen, different views; (G) junction of base of leaf with stem, showing dome-like axillary bud.
 All drawn from MacKinnon 51 (K) by Meg Griffiths. 

Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline.
Cauliflorous inflorescences on trunk.
Photo Lorna MacKinnon.

Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline sp. nov.

Syn. Uvariopsis ebo nom. nud. (Gosline et al., 2021: 5).

Diagnosis. Similar to Uvariopsis solheidii (De Wild.) Robyns & Ghesq., differing in the stem, petioles and abaxial midrib glabrous (versus tomentose); number of secondary nerves on each side of the midrib 5–8 (versus 8–13); petals yellow-green, (14–) 16 × (5.5–) 9 mm (versus wine brown, 7–10 × 2.5–5 mm).

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HABITAT. Uvariopsis dicaprio is so far only known from lower submontane forest (850 m elev.). below the elevation for the upper montane forest indicator species Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex Mirb. The geology is ancient, highly weathered basement complex, with some ferralitic areas in foothill areas which are inland, c. 100 km from the coast. Altitude varies from c. 200 m to 1,200 m elevation. The wet season (successive months with cumulative rainfall >100 mm) falls between March and November and is colder than the dry season. Average annual rainfall at Bekob measured 2010–2016 is 2,336 mm (E. Abwe, 2018 Ebo Forest Research Programme, Cameroon, personal communication, Abwe & Morgan, 2008; Cheek et al., 2018a).

ETYMOLOGY. This threatened and spectacular tree is named for the American actor and conservationist Leonardo DiCaprio, who, through several months in 2020, lobbied extensively on social media (e.g.; both accessed 12 April 2021) to draw attention to threats for the numerous rare Ebo species from the logging concession that had been announced at Ebo earlier that year. The concession was cancelled in August 2020, surely partly due to his efforts.

Such discoveries as this new species underline the urgency for making further such discoveries while it is still possible since in all but one of the cases given above, the species have very narrow geographic ranges and/or very few individuals, and face threats to their natural habitat, putting these species at high risk of extinction.

About 2,000 new species of vascular plant have been discovered each year for the last decade or more. Until species are known to science, they cannot be assessed for their conservation status and the possibility of protecting them is reduced (Cheek et al., 2020). Documented extinctions of plant species are increasing, e.g. Oxygyne triandra Schltr. and Afrothismia pachyantha Schltr. of South West Region, Cameroon are now known to be globally extinct (Cheek & Williams, 1999; Cheek et al., 2018c; Cheek, Etuge & Williams, 2019). In some cases, species appear to be extinct even before they are known to science, such as Vepris bali Cheek, also from the Cross-Sanaga interval in Cameroon (Cheek, Gosline & Onana, 2018) and elsewhere, Nepenthes maximoides Cheek (King & Cheek, 2020). Most of the 815 Cameroonian species in the Red Data Book for the plants of Cameroon are threatened with extinction due to habitat clearance or degradation, especially of forest for small-holder and plantation agriculture following logging (Onana & Cheek, 2011). Efforts are now being made to delimit the highest priority areas in Cameroon for plant conservation as Tropical Important Plant Areas (TIPAs) using the revised IPA criteria set out in Darbyshire et al. (2017). This is intended to help avoid the global extinction of additional endemic species such as Uvariopsis dicaprio which will be included in the proposed Ebo Forest IPA.

With only one locality known, Uvariopsis dicaprio represents another narrowly endemic Cameroonian species threatened with extinction due to deforestation for oil palm plantations, small-scale agriculture, mining and logging, widespread threats posing extinction risks to plant species in Cameroon (Onana & Cheek, 2011; Cheek et al., 2018a).

George Gosline, Martin Cheek​​, Jean Michel Onana, Eric Ngansop Tchatchouang, Xander M. van der Burgt, Lorna MacKinnon and Léo-Paul M. J. Dagallier. 2022. Uvariopsis dicaprio (Annonaceae) A New Tree Species with Notes on Its Pollination Biology, and the Critically Endangered narrowly endemic Plant Species of the Ebo Forest, Cameroon. PeerJ. 9:e12614. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.12614

[Paleontology • 2022] Bryozoan-rich Stromatolites (Bryostromatolites) from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden and their Relation to Climate-related Perturbations of the Global Carbon Cycle

Bryostromatolite Reef. 
The front is showing the initial stage of the bryostromatolite, indicated by rugose corals, tabulates, sponges and stromatoporoids. Towards the background it is developing more and more into a bryostromatolite, 

in Claussen, Munnecke & Ernst. 2022. 
drawing by Anna Merkel.

Bryozoan–stromatolite associations (bryostromatolites) formed conspicuous reef structures throughout the Sheinwoodian (Wenlock) to Ludfordian (Ludlow) stratigraphy on Gotland but have not been described so far. They are mainly composed of encrusting bryozoans forming a complex intergrowth with porostromate and spongiostromate microbes and are different from the abundant stromatoporoid–coral–algal reefs with respect to their composition. In the bryostromatolite different growth stages can be identified. The observed succession can be taken as evidence for cyclic environmental changes during reef formation. Stenohaline reef-dwelling organisms, such as echinoderms, sponges, corals and trilobites, indicate fully marine salinities. Ten localities exposing bryostromatolites were discovered. Individual bryostromatolites are small with few decimetres up to one metre in size, and occur solely in shallow marine areas. Common features of these reefs on Gotland are cauliflower-like growth, a high bryozoan diversity, a high abundance of phosphatic fossils and components such as bryozoan pearls and inarticulate phosphatic brachiopods, enhanced bioerosion, Palaeomicrocodium crusts, vadose silt and gypsum pseudomorphs. The high abundance of Palaeomicrocodium, as well as the alternation with other crust-forming contributors, suggest that it could have been formed directly at the palaeo-sea surface, probably in times of minor but high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. Vadose silt and pseudomorphs after gypsum in reef cavities indicate subaerial exposure shortly after reef growth. The high amount of phosphatic components indicates a high nutrient input, probably by dust. All bryostromatolites were formed in times of strongly elevated δ13C values. The unusual combination of sedimentological and palaeoecological features, as well as their occurrence exclusively during strong positive δ13C excursions, are evidence that the bryostromatolite development responded to climatic/oceanographic changes, which may have played an important role in reef control.

Keywords: Palaeomicrocodium, phosphate, reef, stable carbon isotopes, subaerial exposure

Artistic reconstruction of a bryostromatolite reef.
The front is showing the initial stage of the bryostromatolite, indicated by rugose corals, tabulates, sponges and stromatoporoids. Towards the background it is developing more and more into a bryostromatolite,

drawing by Anna Merkel.

The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows:

 • For the first time bryostromatolite reefs are described from the Silurian of Gotland. They have a cauliflower-like appearance in the field and consist mostly of porostromate and spongiostromate microbial carbonates and bryozoans.
 • On Gotland, bryostromatolites only occur in the Högklint and Tofta formations (Sheinwoodian) and in the Eke and Hamra formations (Ludfordian). They grew in fully marine conditions, and formed a rigid framework and a topographic relief of several decimetres up to about 1 m.
 • The bryostromatolites show a relatively high diversity of bryozoans (with up to twenty species in a single reef), a high abundance of reef-building and reef-dwelling organisms, and a surprisingly high abundance of phosphatic constituents.
 • Repeated alternations of distinct layers dominated by either porostromate microbes, spongiostromate microbial layers, or encrusting bryozoans indicate cyclic environmental changes.
 • Reef growth took place in extremely shallow water. The occurrence of vadose silt and gypsum pseudomorphs in reef cavities indicate subaerial exposure shortly after reef growth.
 • The problematicum Palaeomicrocodium indicates an extreme environment and, according to Antoskhina (2006), even subaerial exposure. The high abundance and alternation with crust-forming reef-building organisms suggest short phases of subaerial exposure even during reef growth and, therefore, reef growth in extremely shallow water.
 • The high abundance of phosphatic components (for example, inarticulate brachiopods, bryozoan pearls and linings) indicates a high input of phosphorous by either rivers or wind. For bryozoan pearls and linings, this hypothesis is supported by several literature studies (e.g. Oakley, 1934; Conti & Serpagli, 1988; Ma et al., 2014b). According to the studies of Kozłowski (2015) in the Baltic area, an aeolian input seems more plausible. This fits the fact that so far, no bryostromatolites have been discovered from the humid equatorial belt.
 • Both the bryostromatolites on Gotland and bryostromatolites in the Silurian and Ordovician of other areas occur only in times of elevated δ13C values, indicating a close link of local bryostromatolite growth and global perturbations of the carbon cycle.

Anna Lene Claussen, Axel Munnecke and Andrej Ernst. 2022. Bryozoan-rich Stromatolites (bryostromatolites) from the Silurian of Gotland and their Relation to Climate-related Perturbations of the Global Carbon Cycle. Sedimentology. 69(1) Special Issue: Understanding carbonate factories through palaeoecological and sedimentological signals – Tribute to Luis Pomar; 162-198. DOI:  10.1111/sed.12863 

Friday, January 7, 2022

[Botany • 2021] Petrocodon anoectochilus (Gesneriaceae) • A Remarkable New Species from Guangxi and Guizhou, Southwest China

  Petrocodon anoectochilus F. Wen & B. Pan., 

in Pan, Ding, Cen, ... et Wen, 2021. 
DOI: 10.3417/2021616  
Photographs by Fang Wen.

Petrocodon anoectochilus F. Wen & B. Pan, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi and Guizhou in southwestern China, is described and illustrated. Although the leaf morphology of this new species looks similar to that of P. coriaceifolius (Y. G. Wei) Y. G. Wei & Mich. Möller and P. pseudocoriaceifolius Yan Liu & W. B. Xu, this remarkable new species can be easily distinguished from all other species of Petrocodon s.l. (the two above-mentioned species included) by the shape and color of its memorable corolla. Because of its restricted distribution and threatened environment, the current conservation status of this species should be assessed temporarily as “Endangered.”

KEYWORDS: Didymocarpoideae, IUCN Red List, karst, limestone flora

  Petrocodon anoectochilus F. Wen & B. Pan.
A. Flowering plant cultivated in Gesneriad Conservation Center of China (GCCC). B. Adaxial surface of leaf. C. Abaxial surface of leaf.
D. Corolla in front view. E. Corolla in lateral view. F. Whole flower and adaxial view of corolla.
G. Abaxial view of corolla. H. Opened corolla. I. Stamens and staminodes.
J. Stigma. K. Fresh young capsules. L. Dried mature capsule.
Photographs by Fang Wen.

Petrocodon anoectochilus F. Wen & B. Pan, sp. nov.

Etymology. The specific epithet, “anoectochilus,” refers to the unusual corolla (Figs. 1A, 2D–F). It comes from Greek, “ανοικτός” and “χεῖλος,” meaning ringent (anoiktos) lip (cheilos)

Bo Pan, Tao Ding, Hua-Fei Cen, Zhang-Jie Huang, Stephen Maciejewski and Fang Wen. 2021. Petrocodon anoectochilus, A Remarkable New Species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi and Guizhou, Southwest China. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 29 (1), 279-286. DOI: 10.3417/2021616